What is azoospermia, is there a cure?
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What is azoospermia, is there a cure?

What is azoospermia, is there a cure?

Sperms come out of the male reproductive system with fluid (semen). Semen is a thick white liquid that contains spermatozoa.

Azoospermia is an infertility problem caused by the lack of measurable amounts of sperm in the semen in the testicles. It affects approximately 10% to 15% of men.

It may be a congenital problem as well as a problem that may occur later in life. With a good diagnosis and personalized treatment plans, one can receive support to gain reproductive ability.

What causes azoospermia?

Azoospermia has two different types. In order to explain the causes of this problem, it will be important to be able to determine its type first.

What are the types of azoospermia?

Obstructive Azoospermia: In such a case, normal sperm production is maintained in the body. However, the tubes that lead sperm outside of the testicles are obstructed in a way that prevents sperm from coming out. The obstruction may have occurred due to the spiral tube (epididymis) behind each testicle where the sperm matures, the tube carrying the sperm (vas deferens), or the tube (ejaculatory duct) in which the sperm enters the urinary tract and mixes with the fluid to form the sperm.

Obstructions in the tubes usually occur as a result of problems such as infection, inflammation, injury, and cystic fibrosis. Traumas, local surgeries, and cystic fibrosis gene mutations may cause obstructions in the vas deferens. Obstructions in the ejaculatory duct may occur as a result of infection, trauma, or previous unsuccessful surgeries.

Non-obstructive Azoospermia: This type of azoospermia occurs due to poor sperm production. No sperm count or low sperm count in the semen due to the lack of production may cause non-obstructive azoospermia. Genetic factors may occur due to problems such as chromosome Y deletion, chromosome karyotype abnormality, radiation and toxins, medications, hormone imbalances, varicocele. In addition, harmful habits such as alcohol, smoking, and drug addiction may also stop sperm production.

Is there a cure for azoospermia?

Azoospermia is a medical condition that can be treated under appropriate conditions. However, what factor is causing azoospermia should be precisely diagnosed.

If azoospermia has developed due to obstruction, surgical methods may be needed. A microsurgery procedure may be preferred if there is a blockage caused by tubes and vas deferens. If there is a problem in the ducts, endoscopic surgery may provide sperm output again.

If it is nonobstructive azoospermia, treatment may be more difficult depending on the cause. However, minimally invasive surgical methods are available to remove sperm in such cases. The location where sperm count is the highest in the testicle and sperm can be extracted successfully with a surgery called microscopic testicular sperm extraction.

In cases of lifestyle factors such as medication use or hormone imbalances, treatment may be as simple as changing medication or addressing hormone problems. Varicocele may also be treated by using a low-risk surgery called varicocelectomy. However, in the case of genetic mutations or chromosome problems, a geneticist should examine the patient in detail and provide treatment options, if any.

A patient with azoospermia should definitely consult a fertility specialist or urologist. First, simple tests such as semen analysis should be performed; physical examination, hormone tests, and genetic screening need to be performed, if necessary.

Can azoospermia be prevented?

Unfortunately, it is not possible to prevent congenital azoospermia. However, problems caused by environmental factors, hormone imbalance, harmful habits, or medication may be prevented as a result of changes in the lifestyle of the person.

  • Regular and balanced nutrition,
  • Not being overweight or underweight,
  • Not taking any medication without medical advice,
  • Early precautions such as avoiding harmful rays are necessary to protect sperm health.

 

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